- Vitamin C is essential for the formation and maintenance of the connective tissue matrix of bone. Vitamin C supplements were associated with optimal bone density in a recent population study of postmenopausal women (J Bone Miner Res 2001;16:135-40).
- Vitamin K is becoming newly appreciated for its role in supporting production of vital bone matrix proteins. Vitamin K requirements increase with age and low vitamin K status is associated with impaired bone health (Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:380-386; Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:74-9), and supplemental K supports normal bone metabolism (Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1256-61; Calcif Tissue Int 2003;73:21-26; Int J Sports Med 1998;19:479-84).
- Manganese is low in refined and processed foods (J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1990;36:S25-33) and appears to be important for maintaining optimum bone density (J Nutr 1994;124:1060-4).
- Boron can increase the levels of hormones that retain calcium in bones, and can reduce urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium (FASEB J 1987;1:394-7).
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